of Beauty: Being the Outline of Aesthetic Theory.
THE NATURE OF BEAUTY
"He is a slave when all his
energy is spent in avoiding suffering and death, when all his
action is imposed from without, and no breath or strength is left
in him for free enjoyment."1a
[See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
"Beauty . . . is a value .
. . It exists in perception, and cannot exist otherwise. A
beauty not perceived is a pleasure not felt, and a contradiction."1b
". . . [B]eauty
. . . is value positive, intrinsic, and objectified. . .
Beauty is pleasure regarded as the quality of a thing."1c
"Moral values are generally
negative, and always remote. Morality has to do
with the avoidance of evil and the pursuit of
good: aesthetics only with enjoyment."1d
"A perfectly simple perception, in which
there was no consciousness of the distinction and relation of
parts, would not be a perception of form, it would be a
"The beautiful does not depend on the
useful; it is constituted by the imagination in ignorance and
contempt of practical advantage; but it is not independent of the
necessary . . ."1f
". . . [W]hile
in the beautiful we find the perfection of life by sinking
into the object, in the sublime we find a purer and more
inalienable perfection by defying the object altogether."1g
". . . [N]o
aesthetic value is really founded on the experience or the
suggestion of evil."1h
"Beauty is a pledge of the
possible conformity between the soul and nature, and
consequently a ground of faith in the supremacy of the good."1i
The Sense of Beauty: Being the
Outline of Aesthetic Theory.
The Life of Reason.
I REASON IN COMMON SENSE
"Those who cannot remember the past are
condemned to repeat it."2a
II REASON IN
"Civilization secures three chief
advantages: greater wealth, greater safety, and
greater variety of experience."2b
"The ideal state and the ideal
universe should be a family where all are not equal,
but where all are happy."2c
III REASON IN
"What was condemnable in the Jews
was not that they asserted the divinity of their law,
for that they did with substantial sincerity and truth.
Their crime is to have denied the equal prerogative of other
nations' laws and deities, for this they did, not from
critical insight or intellectual scruples, but out of pure
bigotry, conceit, and stupidity.
They did not want other
nations also to have a god. . ."2d
IV REASON IN ART
"The subject matter of art is life,
life as it actually is; but the function of art is to make
IV REASON IN
"The great glory of mathematics,
like that of virtue, is to be useful while remaining
"Is four really twice two? The
answer is not that most people say so, but that, in saying so,
I am not misunderstanding myself."2g
"Men know better what is right and
wrong than what is ultimately good or evil . .
"There is tragedy in perfection,
because the universe in which perfection arises is itself
"True science, then, was that
which enabled a man to disentangle and attain his natural
good; and such a science is also the art of
life and the whole of virtue."2j
". . . [S]cience
is nothing but developed perception, interpreted intent,
commonsense rounded out and minutely articulated."2k
"The darkest spots are in man himself,
in his fitful, irrational disposition."2l
Scepticism and Animal Faith:
Introduction to a System of Philosophy.
essence that appears appears just as it is, because its
appearance defines it . . . it is just a quality of being."3a
"Essences are not drawn out or
abstracted from things; they are given before the thing can be
clearly perceived, since they are the terms used in
perception; but they are not given until attention
is stretched upon the thing, which is posited blindly in action;
and they come as revelations, or oracles, delivered by that
thing to the mind, and symbolizing it there."3b
"Intuition therefore is a
view of essence, attention fixed upon it, and
not that essence itself."3c
"Thought here means nothing
more than the fact that some essence is contemplated, and
discourse means only that this essence is
approached and surveyed repeatedly or piecemeal, with
partiality, succession, and possible confusion in describing it."3d
"By experience I
understand a fund of wisdom gathered by living. . .
experience accrues precisely when discrimination, amongst given
essences is keenest, when only the relevant is retained
or perhaps noticed, and when the
interprets data as omens favourable or unfavourable to her
interests . . ."3e
"That discourse is secretly an
experience, and may be turned into knowledge, becomes
particularly evident when it is
interrupted by shocks.
"Though change be everywhere, it
remains everywhere strange and radically unwelcome . . ."3g
"The word truth ought, I
think, to be reserved for what everybody spontaneously means by
it: the standard comprehensive description of any fact
in all its relations."3h
"The psyche or the
principle of bodily life . . . is congenitally a system or
cycle of habits which
that obnoxious event
(1863-1952). Scepticism and Animal
Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy.
New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1955.
Italics in the original.
The Sense of Beauty: Being
the Outline of Aesthetic Theory. New York, NY: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1955. Unabridged and unaltered republication
of the work first published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1896.
Part I. The Nature of Beauty
a 5. All values are in one
sense aesthetic, at 19.
b 10. The differentia of aesthetic
pleasure: its objectification, at 29.
c 11. The definition of beauty, at
d Ibid., at
Part III. Form
Form the unity of a manifold, at 61.
The relation of utility to beauty, at 98.
Part IV. Expression
g 60. The sublime independent of
the expression of evil, at 149.
The possibility of finite perfection, at
Conclusion, at 164.
Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998. [Originally published in 5
v.: The Life of Reason, or, The Phases of Human Progress. New
York: C. Scribners' Sons, 1905-6.]
I REASON IN COMMON SENSE
Flux and Constancy in Human Nature, at 82.
II REASON IN SOCIETY
Chapter 3: Industry,
Government, and War, at 115.
Chapter 4: The Aristocratic Ideal, at 139.
III REASON IN
Chapter 5: The Hebraic Tradition, at 214.
IV REASON IN ART
Chapter 4: Music, at 323.
IV REASON IN SCIENCE
Chapter 6: Dialectic, at
Chapter 7: Pre-Rational
Morality, at 444.
Ibid., at 450.
Chapter 8: Rational Ethics,
Ibid., at 458.
Chapter 10: The Validity of
Science, at 484.
George Santayana (1863-1952).
Scepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction
to a System of Philosophy. New York, NY: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1955.
a Chapter X. Some Uses of this Discovery, at 92.
Ibid., at 93-94.
Chapter XIII. Belief in Demonstration, at 117.
Ibid., at 123.
Chapter XV. Belief in Experience, at 138.
Ibid., at 139.
Chapter XX. On some Objections to Belief in Substance, at 195.
Chapter XXV. The Implied Being of Truth, at 268.
Chapter XXVI. Discernment of Spirit, at 280.