Critique of Pure
" . . . [T]hough
all our knowledge begins with experience, it by no means follows
that all arises out of experience."3a
" . . . [B]esides intuition
there is no other mode of knowledge, except through concepts
. . . "3b
"The possibility of
experience is, then, that which gives objective reality
to all our a priori knowledge."3c
" . . . [I]t is only because we
subject the sequence of appearances, and consequently all change, to
the law of causality, that experience itself, that is,
empirical knowledge of appearances, becomes possible . . . "3d
Metaphysics of Morals.
is . . . the sum of the conditions under which the choice of one can
be united with the choice of another in accordance with a universal
law of freedom."5a
" . . .
is the science of how one is under obligation without regard for
any possible external lawgiving."5b
" . . .
[A] human being regarded
as a person, that is, as the subject of a morally practical
reason, is exalted above any price; for as a person (homo
noumenon) he is not to be valued merely as a means to
the ends of others or even to his own ends, but as as an end in
himself; that is, he possesses a dignity (an
absolute inner worth) by which he exacts respect for
himself from all other rational beings in the world."5c*
The Metaphysics of Morals.
(Cambridge Texts in the History of
Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.
feeling . . . is chiefly of two kinds: the feeling of the
sublime and that of the beautiful."6a*
"The sublime moves, the beautiful
"The sublime must always be great;
the beautiful can also be small.
The sublime must be
simple; the beautiful can be adorned or ornamented. A great
height is just as sublime as a great depth, except that the latter
is accompanied with the sensation of shuddering, the former with one
of wonder. Hence the latter feeling can be the terrifying sublime,
and the former the noble."6c
"Understanding is sublime, wit is
beautiful. . . Sublime attributes stimulate esteem, but
beautiful ones, love."6d
"Friendship has mainly the
character of the sublime, but love between the sexes,
that of the beautiful."6e
"Among moral attributes
virtue alone is sublime."6f
" . . . [T]rue virtue can be
grafted only upon principles such that the more general they are,
the more sublime and noble it becomes. These principles are not
speculative rules, but the consciousness of a feeling that lives in
every human breast and extends itself much further than over the
particular grounds of compassion and complaisance. I believe that I
sum it all up when I say that it is the feeling of the beauty
and the dignity of human nature. The first is a ground of
universal affection, the second of
universal esteem . . .
the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.
Italics in the original.
1 Immanuel Kant
of the Metaphysic of Morals
Translated and Analyzed by H.J. Paton. New York, NY: Harper and Row,
Publishers, Incorporated. (Originally published under the title The
Moral Law, Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., London, 1948.)
a The function of reason, at 62-64.
b The Formula of the Law of Nature, at 89.
c The dignity of virtue, at 102-103.
2 Immanuel Kant. Religion
Within the Limits of Reason Alone (1793). Translated
with an Introduction and Notes by Theodore M. Greene and Hoyt H.
Hudson, with an essay by John R. Silber. La Salle, IL: The Open
Court Publishing Company, 1934. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers,
a Concerning the
Propensity to Evil in Human Nature, at 23-27.
is Evil by Nature, at 27-34.
3 Immanuel Kant.
of Pure Reason
(1781). A revised and expanded translation based on
Meiklejohn. Edited by Vasilis Politis. Introduction and Chronology,
J.M. Dent, 1993. London, UK: J.M. Dent, Orion Publishing Group.
Rutland, VT: Charles E. Turtle Co. Inc.
a The Difference Between Pure and Empirical Knowledge,
b Transcendental Clue to the Discovery of all Pure
Concepts of the Understanding, at 78.
c System of the Principles of the Pure Understanding, at
d Principle of the Succession in Time According to the
Law of Causality, at 173.
4 Immanuel Kant. To Perpetual Peace: A
Philosophical Sketch (1795). Essay included in Immanuel
Kant, Perpetual Peace and Other Essays on Politics, History, and
Moral Practice. Translated with an Introduction by Ted Humphrey.
Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1983, at
5 Immanuel Kant. The
Metaphysics of Morals (1797). Translated and edited by
Mary Gregor. With an Introduction by Roger J. Sullivan. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
a Introduction to the Doctrine of Right, at 24.
b Introduction to the Doctrine of Virtue, at 168.
c The Doctrine of Virtue, at 186.
6 Immanuel Kant.
Observations on the Feeling of
the Beautiful and Sublime
Translated by John T. Goldthwait.
The Regents of the University of California, 1960. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press, Ltd., 2003.
a Section One: Of the Distinct Objects
of the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, at 46.
Two: Of the Attributes of the Beautiful and Sublime in Man in
General, at 51.