Truth, Reality, Reason, Philosophy, essence, Logic, Fact, Knowledge, Understanding, Causality, Being, Belief

"[W]ould God willingly mask the truth behind appearance and deceive us by his words or action? . . . [T]here's nothing of the lying poet in God. . . God is entirely uniform and truthful."1a

The Metaphysics.

" . . . [P]hilosophy is rightly called a knowledge of Truth. . . But we cannot know the truth apart from the cause."1a EINSTEIN

" . . . [I]t is of Being qua Being that we . . . must grasp the first causes."1b*

"To say that what is is not, or that what is not is, is false; but to say that what is is, and what is not is not, is true; and therefore also he who says that a thing is or is not will say either what is true and what is false."1c

"The term 'being' . . . denotes first the 'what' of a thing . . . what it is . . . "1d*


The Dead Sea Scrolls.

" . . Cursed be [S]atan in his hostile design, and damned in his guilty dominion. Cursed be all the spirits of his [lo]t in their wicked design . . . For they are a lot of darkness and their visitation is for eternal destruction. Amen, amen. . . [Cursed be a]ll those who practi[se] their [wicked designs] . . . [plotting against Go]d'[s Covenant] . . . to exchange the judgemen[ts of truth for folly.]"1

The New Testament.

" . . . [T]here is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known." [St. Matthew 10:26]1a

"Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him. If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man; how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free?
Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin.
" [St. John 8:31-34].3b*

On Free Choice of the Will.

"No part of truth is ever made the private property of anyone; rather, it is entirely common to all at the same time."1a

The Prince.

" . . . [I]t is necessary . . . to be a great feigner and dissembler; and men are so simple and so ready to obey present necessities, that one who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived."1a

The Discourses

" . . . [A] prince who wishes to do great things must learn to practice deceit."2a


"Everything I have accepted up to now as being absolutely true and assured, I have learned from or through the senses. But I have sometimes found that these senses played me false, and it is prudent never to trust entirely those who have once deceived us."1a

The Ethics.

"He who has a true idea knows at the same time that he has a true idea, and cannot doubt its truth."1a*

"The free man never acts deceitfully, but always with good faith."1b*

"To act in absolute conformity with virtue is nothing else in us but to act, to live, to preserve one's own being (these three mean the same) under the guidance of reason, on the basis of seeking one's own advantage."1c*


"Our reasoning is based upon two great principles: first, that of Contradiction . . . And second, the principle of Sufficient Reason . . . There are also two kinds of Truths: those of Reasoning and those of Fact. The Truths of Reasoning are necessary, and their opposite is impossible. Those of Fact, however, are contingent, and their opposite is possible."1a

Philosophy of Mind.

"In the formula, I=I, is enunciated the principle of absolute Reason and freedom."1a

"Truth aware of what it is, is mind (spirit)."1b

Utilitarianism and Other Essays.

"The truths which are ultimately accepted as the first principles of a science, are really the last results of metaphysical analysis . . . and their relation to the science is not that of foundations to an edifice, but of roots to a tree . . . "1a

The Descent of Man.

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long . . . "1a

Bertrand Russell on God and Religion

"I am persuaded that there is absolutely no limit to the absurdities that can, by government action, come to be generally believed. Give me an adequate army . . .  and I will undertake . . . to make the majority of the population believe that two and two are three . . . "1a

The Myth of the State.

" . . . [A]ccording to [Hegel] . . . 'Men are as foolish as to forget . . . in their enthusiasm for liberty of conscience and political freedom, the truth which lies in power.' These words . . . contain the clearest and most ruthless program of fascism that has ever been propounded . . . "1a

The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms.

" . . . [T]he scientific value of a formula consists not only in its summing up of given empirical facts but in its power . . . to call forth new facts. The formula states relationships, connections, series which far outdistance direct observation. It becomes one of the most outstanding instruments of what Leibniz called the 'logic of discovery,' the logica inventionis."2a

"The true standard for the evaluation of a physical hypothesis . . . can never be sought in its intuitive reference but only in its efficacy. It is not the simplicity of the image that is decisive, but the unity of the explanation, the subsumption of the totality of natural phenomena under supreme comprehensive rules."2b


Ideas and Opinions.

"The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. . . "1a 

" . . . [T]he scientific method can teach us nothing else beyond how facts are related to, and conditioned by, each other."1b 

" . . . [S]cience can only ascertain what is, but not what should be . . . Religion . . . deals only with evaluations of human thought and action . . . science can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspirations toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling, however, springs from the sphere of religion. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational, that is, comprehensible to reason. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind."1c* 

Being and Time.

"The 'Being-true' . . . means . . . the entities of which one is talking must be taken out of their hiddenness; one must let them be seen as something unhidden; that is, they must be discovered. Similarly, 'Being false' . . . amounts to deceiving in the sense of covering up [verdecken]: putting something in front of something (in such a way as to let it be seen) and thereby passing it off as something which it is not."1*


"The essence of truth reveals itself as freedom."2a*

The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic.

"We need another logic solely because what is called logic is not a logic at all and has nothing in common anymore with philosophy."3a


"Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. He must have the courage to write the truth when truth is everywhere opposed; the keenness to recognize it, although it is everywhere concealed; the skill to manipulate it as a weapon; the judgment to select those in whose hands it will be effective; and the running to spread the truth among such persons."1

Nineteen Eighty-Four.  


"Doublethink lies at the very heart of Ingsoc, since the essential act of the Party is to use conscious deception while retaining the firmness of purpose that goes with complete honesty. . . It need hardly be said that the subtlest practitioners of doublethink are those who invented doublethink and know that it is a vast system of mental cheating."1b*

The Crisis of Global Capitalism.

"Why bother about the truth when a proposition does not need to be true to be effective? Why be honest when it is success, not honesty or virtue that gains people's respect? . . . We are ready to enter the Age of Fallibility."1a

Shadows of the Mind.

"Understanding is, after all, what science is all about -- and science is a great deal more than mere mindless computation."1a

"Gödel's argument does not argue in favour of there being inaccessible mathematical truths. What it does argue for, on the other hand, is that human insight lies beyond formal argument and beyond computable procedures. Moreover, it argues powerfully for the very existence of the Platonic mathematical world. Mathematical truth is not determined arbitrarily by the rules of some 'man-made' formal system, but has an absolute nature, and lies beyond any such system of specifiable rules."1c*

* Italics in the original. 1 Plato. Republic. Translated by Robin Waterfield. Robin Waterfield, 1993. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
a Primary Education for the Guardians (382a-382c), at 77-78.

1 Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books I-IX. Translation by Hugh Tredennick. G.P. Goold, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933, 1989. (The Loeb Classical Library.)
Book II, at 87.
Book IV, at 147.
c Book IV, at 201.
Book VII, at 311.

1 Geza Vermes. The Dead Sea Scrolls. 4th ed. G. Vermes, 1962, 1965, 1968, 1975, 1987, 1995. Penguin Group. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd., at 185. (The liturgical curse identified as 4Q286-7 was published by J.T. Milik, Journal of Jewish Studies 23, 1972, 126-35.) 1 The Holy Bible. The New Testament. King James Version. London, England: Collins' Clear-Type Press, 1957.
a St. Matthew 10:26.

b St. John 8:31-34.

1 Saint Augustine (354-430). On Free Choice of the Will. Translated by Anna S. Benjamin and L.H. Hackstaff. With an Introduction by L.H. Hackstaff. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964.
a Book I, at 8.

1 Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527). The Prince (1531). Translated by Luigi Ricci. Revised by E.R.P. Vincent. Introduction by Christian Gauss. New York, NY: The New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1952. (Reprint of a hardcover edition published by Oxford University Press, Inc.)
a In What Way Princes Must Keep Faith, at 93.

2 Niccolo Machiavelli. The Discourses. Edited with an Introduction by Bernard Crick using the translation of Leslie J. Walker, S.J. Revisions by Brian Richardson. Bernard Crick, 1970. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd. (Penguin Classics.)
a Book Two, Discourse 13, at 310.

1 Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Discourse on Method and the Meditations (1637). Translated with an Introduction by F.E. Sutcliffe. F.E. Sutcliffe, 1968. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd.
a First Meditation: About the Things We May Doubt, at 96.
1 Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). The Ethics. Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect. Selected Letters . Translated by Samuel Shirley. Edited, with Introductions, by Seymour Feldman. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1992.
a Proposition 43, Part II, at 91.
b Proposition 72, Part IV, at 194.
c Proposition 24, Part IV, at 166-167.
1 G.W. Leibniz (1646-1716). Discourse on Metaphysics. Correspondence with Arnauld. Monadology. Introduction by Paul Janet. Translated by George Montgomery. Lasalle, IL: Open Court Publishing Company, 1902, 1995.
Monadology, at 258.
1 G. W. F. Hegel. Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. Part Three of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830). Translated by William Wallace. Together with the Zus�tze in Boumann's Text (1845) translated by A.V. Miller. Foreword by J.N. Findlay. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1971.
a Self-Consciousness, at 165.
b Reason, at 178.
1 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Utilitarianism and Other Essays. Edited with an Introduction by Alan Ryan. Alan Ryan, 1987. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd., 1987.
a Utilitarianism, at 273.
1 Charles Darwin (1809-1882). The Descent of Man (1871). In Darwin, Philip Appleman (ed.), 2nd ed., New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1970, 1979.
a General Summary and Conclusion, at 196.

1 Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell on God and Religion. Edited by Al Sekel.
a An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish, at 225.

1 Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945). The Myth of the State. Yale University Press, 1946. Henry Cassirer and Anne Applebaum, 1974. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hegel's Theory of the State, 267.

2 Ernst Cassirer. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Volume 3: The Phenomenology of Knowledge. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Introductory Note by Charles W. Hendel. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957, 1985.
a The Foundations of Scientific Knowledge, at 440.
b The Foundations of Scientific Knowledge, at 463.

1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Ideas and Opinions. Based on Mein Weltbild, edited by Carl Seelig, and other sources. New translations and revisions by Sonja Bargmann. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954.
a The World as I See It., at 8-11. Originally published in Forum and Century, Vol. 84, pp. 193-194, the 13th in the Forum series, "Living Philosophies"; included also in Living Philosophies (pp. 3-7), New York: Simon and Schuster, 1931. 
b Science and Religion, Part I, at 41-44. From an address at Princeton Theological Seminary, May 19, 1939; published in Out of My Later Years, New York: Philosophical Library, 1950.
Science and Religion, Part II, at 44-49. From Science, Philosophy and Religion, A Symposium, published by the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, Inc., New York, 1941.

1 Martin Heidegger. Being and Time. A translation of Sein und Zeit (7th ed., Neomarius Verlag, T�bingen) by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated, 1962 [HarperSanFrancisco]. (The Concept of the Logos, at 55-58.)

2 Martin Heidegger. Pathmarks. Edited by William McNeill. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Originally published as Wegmarken by Vittorio Klostermann GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1967.
a On the Essence of Truth, translated by John Sallis, at 136-154. (Originally published in Marting Heidegger: Basic Writings, edited by David Farrell Krell (2nd revised and expanded ed.) (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1993), at 115-138.)

3 Martin Heidegger. The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic. Translated by Michael Heim. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.
On the Traditional conception of logic, at 5.

1 Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956). "Writing the Truth: Five Difficulties." Translated by Richard Winston. Originally published in the United States in Twice A Year (New York), Tenth Anniversary Issue, 1948.
a Translation reprinted in Bertolt Brecht,
Galileo. Edited and with an Introduction by Eric Bentley, 1966. English version by Charles Laughton. Arvid Englind, 1940. Bertolt Brecht, 1952 (Indiana University Press). New York, NY: Grove Press. (Appendix A, at 133-150.)
b The first version of Brecht's essay was first published in the Pariser Tagebaltt, December 12, 1934, under the title "Dichter sollen die Wahrheit schreiben" ("Poets Are to Tell the Truth"). The final version of Brecht's essay was published in Unsere Zeit (Paris), VIII, Nos. 2/3, April 1935, at 23-24.
1 George Orwell (1903-1950). Nineteen Eighty-Four. Eric Blair, 1949. Estate of the late Sonia Brownwell Orwell, 1987. Note on the Text by Peter Davison, 1989.London, UK: Penguin Group, 1989, 1990. (First published by Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., 1949.)
a "2+2=5," at 290 and 303.
b Doublethink and the "secret of rulership," at 223-224.
1 George Soros. The Crisis of Global Capitalism [Open Society Endangered]. George Soros, 1998. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
a The Enlightenment, at 89-90.
1 Roger Penrose. Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. Roger Penrose, 1994. London, UK: Vintage, Random House UK Limited, 1995. First published by Oxford University Press, 1994.
a Preface, at vii.
b What New Physics We Need to Understand the Mind: The Quest for a Non-computational Physics of Mind, at 225.
c What New Physics We Need to Understand the Mind: Implications?, at 418.