Justice, Laws, Principles, Equality, Rights
True Justice
Principles of
  of Justice
Basic Liberty
Perversion of
The Rich and
Guilty Men
Rewards vs.
Might vs. Right
Protecting the
The Old Testament. "Then I looked on all the works that my hands had wrought, and on the labour that I had laboured to do: and, behold, all was vanity and vexation of spirit, and there was no profit under the sun." [Ecclesiastes 2:11]1a*

"I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all." [Ecclesiastes 9:11]1b*

"Doth God pervert judgment? or doth the Almighty pervert justice?" [Job 8:3]1c


The Analects.

"The Master said: 'It is all over! I have never come across anyone capable of discerning his errors and inwardly bringing himself to justice.'" [5:27]1a

"Zigong asked: 'Is there a single word such that one could practice it throughout one's life?' The Master said: 'Reciprocity perhaps? Do not inflict on others what you yourself would not wish done to you.'" [15:24]1b


"The safety of the People, requireth further, from him, or them that have the Sovereign Power, that Justice be equally administred to all degrees of People, that is, that as well the rich and mighty, as poor and obscure persons, may be righted of the injuries done them . . . "1a


"Mine, thine. 'This is my dog,' said these poor children . . . There is the origin and image of universal usurpation1a*

"Equality of possessions is no doubt right, but, as men could not make might obey right, they have made right obey might."1b

"Of true justice. We no longer have any."1c*

The Spirit of the Laws.

"As soon as man enters into a state of society he loses the sense of his weakness; equality ceases, and then commences the state of war."1a  

" . . . [I]nsomuch that among the Germans, contrary to the practice of all other nations, justice was administered in order to protect the criminal against the party injured."1b

Philosophical Dictionary.

"Equality. What does a dog owe to a dog, and a horse to a horse? Nothing, no animal depends on his like; but man having received the ray of divinity called reason, what is the result? Slavery throughout almost the whole world."1a

"Hell. As soon as men lived in society they must have noticed that some guilty men eluded the severity of the law."1b

"Tyranny. The sovereign who knows no laws but his own whim, who seizes the property of his subjects, and who then enlist them to seize that of his neighbours is called a tyrant."1c

The Social Contract.

"Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains."1a

The Wealth of Nations.

"When the law does not enforce the performance of contracts, it puts all borrowers nearly upon the same footing with bankrupts or people of doubtful credit . . . "1b

The Mirage of Social Justice.

" . . . [F]reedom is inseparable from rewards which often have no connection with merit . . . "2a*

The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt.

"Once crime was as solitary as a cry of protest; now it is as universal as science. Yesterday it was put on trial; today it determines the law."1a

"Absolute freedom mocks at justice. Absolute justice denies freedom. To be fruitful, the two ideas must find their limits in each other."1b

A Theory of Justice.

"The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance."1a

First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others.
Second: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone's advantage, and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all."

* Italics in the original. 1 The Holy Bible. The Old Testament. King James Version. London, England: Collins' Clear-Type Press, 1957.
a Ecclesiastes 2:11.
b Ecclesiastes 9:11.
c Job 8:3.
1 Confucius. The Analects. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Raymond Dawson. Translation, Editorial material, Raymond Dawson, 1993. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. {The Analects consist of about 500 pieces organized by book and chapter; Confucius is referred to as Master Kong.]
a 5:27.
b 15:24.

1 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Leviathan (1651). Edited with an Introduction by C.B. Macpherson. C.B. Macpherson, 1968. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1985.
Of Common-Wealth, at 385.

1 Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). Pens�es (1670). Translated with an Introduction by A.J. Krailsheimer. A.J. Krailsheimer, 1966, 1995. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Wretchedness, 64, at 18.
b Causes and Effects, 81, at 21.
c Causes and Effects, 86, at 23.
1 Baron de Montesquieu (Charles Louis de Secondat, 1689-1755). The Spirit of the Laws, Vols. 1-2. Translated by Thomas Nugent, with an Introduction by Franz Neumann. New York, NY: Hafner Press, A Division of the Free Press, 1949.
a Vol. I, Book I: On Laws in General, at 5.
b Vol. II, Book XXX: Theory of the Feudal Laws Among the Franks in the Relation they Bear to the Establishment of the Monarchy, at 200.
1 Voltaire (1694-1778). Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Edited and translated by Theodore Besterman, 1972. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a Egalité: Equality, at 181.
b Enfer: Hell, at 184.
c Tyrannie: Tyranny, at 398.

1 Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Discourse on Political Economy and The Social Contract. Translated with Introduction and Notes by Christopher Betts. Christopher Betts, 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Book I, at 45.

1 Adam Smith (1723-1790). The Wealth of Nations (1776). 2 vols. in 1. Edited by Edwin Cannan. Preface by George J. Stigler. The University of Chicago, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, at 74 (vol. 1, bk. 1). (Cannan's ed. was originally pub. 1904 by Methuen & Co., Ltd.)
a Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 107.
b Vol. 1, bk. 3, at 411.

1 F.A. Hayek (1899-1992). The Road to Serfdom. Fiftieth Anniversary Edition. Introduction by Milton Friedman. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago, 1944, 1972, 1994.
a Economic Control and Totalitarianism, at 98-99.

2 F.A. Hayek. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice. F.A. Hayek, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
a The Game of Catallaxy, at 120.

1 Albert Camus. The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt. A revised and complete translation by Anthony Bower. With a Foreword by Sir Herbert Read. Originally published in France as L'homme Révolté by Librairie Gallimard in 1951. Librairie Gallimard, 1951. Translation first published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in 1956. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1956 and 1984. New York, NY: Vintage International, a division of Random House, Inc., 1991.
a Introduction, p. 3.
b Part Five: Thought at the Meridian. Rebellion and Murder, p. 291.
1 John Rawls (1921-2002). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1971.
a Justice as Fairness, at 12.
b The Principles of Justice, at 60 (first statement of the two principles). The principles are restated at 250. The full statement is given at 302.