Free to Act
Power to Act
Right of Property
Liberty of Thought
Liberty of Feeling
Liberty of Tastes
Liberty of Pursuits
Freedom to Unite
Essence of Truth
States FREE and
"In the mind there
is no absolute, or free, will. The mind is determined to
this or that volition by a cause, which is likewise determined by
another cause, and this again by another, and so ad infinitum."1a*
men were born free, they would form no conception of good and evil
so long as they were free."1b*
"The free man never acts deceitfully, but always with good
"On freewill. A: Your
will is not free, but your actions are. You are free to act
when you have the power to act."1a
we trace the march of inequality in these various
revolutions, we find that the establishment of law and the right
of property was the first stage, the institution of the magistrate
the second, and the transformation of legitimate into arbitrary
power the third and last. Thus, the status of rich and poor
was sanctioned in the first age, that of strong and weak in
the second, and in the third that of master and slave, the
ultimate degree of inequality to which all the others at last lead
until new revolutions dissolve the government altogether
or bring it closer to legitimacy."1a
"Man was born free,
and everywhere he is in chains."2a
The Wealth of
is not . . . difficult to foresee which of the two parties must . . . have the advantage
in the dispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms.
masters . . . can combine much more easily; and the law, besides, authorizes, or at
least does not prohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of the
Metaphysics of Morals.
" . . .
[A] human being regarded
as a person, that is, as the subject of a morally practical
reason, is exalted above any price; for as a person (homo
noumenon) he is not to be valued merely as a means to
the ends of others or even to his own ends, but as as an end in
himself; that is, he possesses a dignity (an
absolute inner worth) by which he exacts respect for
himself from all other rational beings in the world."1a*
. . . [T]here is posited a pure self-consciousness, and a
consciousness which is not purely for itself but for another . . . The
former is lord, the other is bondsman."1a [See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
"As a living thing man
may be coerced . . . ; but the free will cannot be coerced at all .
. . Only the will which allows itself to be coerced can in any
way be coerced."2a
English . . . recognize the rational less in the form of
universality than in that of individuality. . . For this
reason, political freedom with the English exists mostly in the
shape of privileges, of rights which are traditional, not
derived from general ideas."3a
the formula, I=I, is enunciated the principle of absolute
Reason and freedom."3b
"This, then, is the
appropriate region of human liberty. It comprises, first, the
inward domain of consciousness; demanding liberty of conscience,
in the most comprehensive sense; liberty of thought and feeling;
absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects,
practical or speculative, scientific, moral, or theological. . .
Secondly, the principle requires liberty of tastes and pursuits;
of framing the plan of our life to suit our own character;
doing as we like, subject to such consequences as may follow . . .
Thirdly, from this liberty of each individual, follows the
liberty, within the same limits, of combination among individuals;
freedom to unite, for any purpose not involving harm to others;
the persons combining being supposed to be of full age, and not
forced or deceived.
"No society in which these liberties are not, on the whole,
respected, is free . . . ; and none is completely free in which
they do not exist absolute and unqualified."2a
"If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion,
and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be
no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had
the power, would be justified in silencing mankind."2b
" . . . [I]t is now recognized . . . that both
the cheapness and the good quality of commodities are more
effectually provided for by leaving the producers and sellers
perfectly free, under the sole check of equal freedom to the
buyers for supplying themselves elsewhere. This is the so-called
doctrine of Free Trade, which rests on grounds different from,
though equally solid with, the principle of individual liberty
asserted in this Essay."2c
"In this and most other civilized countries . .
. an engagement by which a person should sell himself, or allow
himself to be sold, as a slave, would be null and void; neither
enforced by law nor by opinion. . . by selling himself for a
slave, he abdicates his liberty . . . He is no longer free . . .
The principle of freedom cannot require that he should be free not
to be free. It is not freedom, to be allowed to alienate his
[See Edward Ayoub's Quantum Theory
"I do not at all believe
in human freedom in the philosophical sense. Everybody acts
not only under external compulsion but also in accordance
with inner necessity. . . "1a
"The essence of truth reveals itself as freedom."1a*
Foundations of Logic.
"Only a free being can be
unfree. . . only seldom do we exist
"Being-free . . . is understanding oneself out of possibility."2b
Brave New World
"The cry of 'Give me television and hamburgers; but don't
bother me with the responsibilities of liberty', may give place, under altered
circumstances, to the cry 'Give me Liberty or give me death'. . . Perhaps the
forces that now menace freedom are too strong to be resisted for very long, It is still
our duty to do whatever we can to resist them."1
The Mirage of
. . . [F]reedom is inseparable from
rewards which often have no connection with merit . . . "1a*
Management and Society.
"Aware that we are living in the midst
of a technological revolution, we are becoming increasingly
concerned with its meaning for the individual and its impact on
freedom, on society, and on our political institutions.
Side by side with messianic promises of utopia to be ushered in by
technology, there are the most dire warnings of manï¿½s enslavement
by technology, his alienation from himself and from
society, and the destruction of all human and political
"A working model of a society organized through voluntary exchange
is a free private enterprise exchange economy - what
we have been calling competitive capitalism."1a*
could so thoroughly undermine the very foundations of our free
society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social
responsibility other than to make as much money for their
stockholders as possible."1b
. . . [T]he idea of a quantum theory of economics
must capture the essence of economic Being. . . By
analogy with quantum mechanics, the wave function |Y>
of a system (consisting of one or more persons,
corporations, States, etc.) can be expressed as a
weighting factors a and b are the probability
amplitudes of states FREE and SLAVE,
Italics in the original.
1 Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). The
Ethics. Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect. Selected
Letters . Translated by Samuel Shirley. Edited,
with Introductions, by Seymour Feldman. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett
Publishing Company, Inc., 1992.
a Proposition 48, Part II, at 95.
b Proposition 68, Part IV, at 192.
c Proposition 72, Part IV, at 194.
1 Voltaire (1694-1778). Philosophical
Dictionary (1764). Edited and translated by Theodore
Besterman, 1972. London,
England: Penguin Books Ltd.
a de la Libertï¿½: On freewill, at 278.
(1712-1778). Discourse on the
Origin of Inequality.
Translated by Franklin Philip. Edited with an Introduction
by Patrick Coleman. Franklin Philip, 1994. Patrick
Coleman, 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Part II, at 78-79.
Rousseau. Discourse on Political
Economy and The Social Contract.
Translated with Introduction and Notes by Christopher
Betts. Christopher Betts, 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Book I, at 45.
1 Adam Smith (1723-1790). The
Wealth of Nations (1776). 2 vols. in 1. Edited by Edwin Cannan. Preface by
George J. Stigler. The University of Chicago, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago
Press, at 74 (vol. 1, bk. 1). (Cannan's ed. was originally pub. 1904 by Methuen & Co.,
a Vol. 1, bk. 1, at 74.
1 Immanuel Kant. The
Metaphysics of Morals (1797). Translated and edited by
Mary Gregor. With an Introduction by Roger J. Sullivan. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
a The Doctrine of Virtue, at 186.
1 G. W. F. Hegel.
Translated by A.V. Miller with Analysis of the Text and Foreword by
J.N. Findlay. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1977.
a Independence and Dependence of Self-Consciousness:
Lordship and Bondage, at 115.
2 G. W. F. Hegel.
Philosophy of Right.
Translated with Notes by T.M. Knox. Oxford, UK: Oxford University
a Coercion and Crime, at 66.
3 G. W. F. Hegel.
Part Three of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences
(1830). Translated by William Wallace. Together with the Zusï¿½tze in
Boumann's Text (1845) translated by A.V. Miller. Foreword by J.N.
Findlay. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1971.
a Anthropology, at 50.
b Self-Consciousness, at 165.
John Stuart Mill. On
Mineola, NY: Dover Publications Inc., 2002. (Originally published
by J.W. Parker in Great Britain in 1859.)
a Chapter I: Introductory, at 10.
II: Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion, at 14.
V: Applications, at 80.
Ibid., at 86-87.
1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Ideas
and Opinions. Based on Mein
Weltbild, edited by Carl Seelig, and other sources.
New translations and revisions by Sonja Bargmann. New York, NY: Crown
Publishers, Inc., 1954.
a The World as I See It., at 8-11. Originally
published in Forum and Century, Vol. 84, pp. 193-194, the
13th in the Forum series, "Living Philosophies";
included also in Living Philosophies (pp. 3-7), New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1931.
1 Martin Heidegger.
Edited by William
McNeill. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Originally published as Wegmarken by Vittorio Klostermann
GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1967.
a On the Essence of Truth, translated by John
Sallis, at 136-154. (Originally published in Marting Heidegger:
Basic Writings, edited by David Farrell Krell (2nd revised and
expanded ed.) (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1993), at 115-138.)
2 Martin Heidegger. The
Metaphysical Foundations of Logic. Translated by
Michael Heim. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.
a Freedom and World, at 191, and Transcendence and
Temporality (Nihil Originarum), at 199.
b Transcendence Temporalizing Itself
in Temporality and the Essence of Ground, at 215.
1 Aldous Huxley (1894-1963). Brave New World Revisited.
With an Introduction by David Bradshaw.
Laura Huxley, 1958. London, UK: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994, at
1 F.A. Hayek. Law,
Legislation and Liberty. Volume 2: The Mirage of
Social Justice. F.A. Hayek, 1976. Chicago, IL: The University of
a The Game of Catallaxy, at 120.
Peter F. Drucker (b. 1909).
Management and Society: Essays. Peter F. Drucker,
1958, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970. New York, NY: Harper &
Row, Publishers, Inc., 1977.
Ch. 7: The First
Technological Revolution and Its Lessons, at 117. Presidential
address to the Society for the History of Technology, December 29,
1965; First published in Technology and Culture, Spring 1966.
1 Milton Friedman. Capitalism
and Freedom. With the assistance of Rose D. Friedman.
Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago, 1962, 1982.
a The Relation between Economic Freedom and Political
Freedom, at 13.
b Monopoly and the Social Responsibility of Business
and Labor, at 133.
1 Edward E.
Ayoub, with the assistance of
Trudé K. Ayoub.
Essence of Capitalism.
Toronto, ON: Macroknow